Much of a leadership is a manifestation of personal qualities, character, although there are many methods of teaching leadership skills. Steering manager has an advantage in gaining leadership in the organization – if possible it should be a leader, as it combines the ability to influence – that is, their actions and words to change the behavior of other people – and dominate – that is, formally, “the force” to influence the this behavior. Power positions – manager, and the power of personality – the leader, in this case should complement each other, because both of them are tools in humans. In what is the leadership shown? First and foremost, the leader creates a speculative image of the best state of the company in the future and maximizes conveys this image to his followers.
Many scientists lead in connection with this set of personal qualities that a leader must possess: intelligence is higher than the rest of his team, initiative, confidence, common sense, bright appearance, etc. Well-known Western management guru Peter Drucker points out the following mandatory conditions of the leader:
1. Decisiveness. Leaders must be able to act authoritatively in crisis situations and to have freedom of action – without pressure from the authorities;
2. The ability to enter into trust. The actions of the leader should not cause the remaining doubt that they know what they are doing;
3. Filing a positive example and courage. Drucker, however, points to the danger to bring their actions to the recklessness and lose a leadership position;
4. Clarity of expression. The rhetoric of the leader should contain simple and clear calls for change, crisis or achievement of certain indicators. Only in this case followers will go for a mentor to the end;
5. Communicative. In other words, the leader must not only communicate frequently, but also create a sense of communication on equal positions, to be “close to the people.”
However, researchers of the 30-50-ies attempting to establish a “composition” leaders such as Warren Bennis and Ralph Stogdill, with its task failed, therefore, from a similar approach to the consideration of leadership in science was declined. And although one cannot deny the existence of specific features of the leader compared to the other, this view is incomplete. A unique characteristic of a leader, not falling under the personal qualities is his ability to see the prospects of the organization and lead their followers to change. Managers are a counterweight – they focus on current problems. To be a manager that leads is an art of managements, communication, wise decision and always updated knowledge.
Also should be considered the above-mentioned property of the leader to surround himself with an aura of divinity, when people begin to attribute to him qualities that he really cannot have. In science, it is denoted the concept of charisma. Nature’s charisma has not yet been disclosed. Supposedly its secret lies in the unconscious layer of followers – a kind of emotional key to absolute confidence. Phenomenon of charismatic leadership still considered sociologist Max Weber: he argued that a true leader, “soul” of the group can only be a person with charisma. Such a leader not just paints the image of the future, but also embodies the entire culture and values of the organization, forms the moral basis for the followers. Charisma, however, cannot be called strictly positive quality. The main drawback is the charismatic leader, excessive centralization efforts of staff – the unexpected failure of a leader all the activities of the group can stay. Acknowledged their inadequacy in the 1950’s theory of features experienced in 1980 a second birth in the form of the concept of situational leadership. Those or other personal characteristics of a person became associated with the peculiarities of the situation in the organization. The latter may have a large impact on what will be the leader of the people or not. For example, one person can be a leader in the manufacturing process, the other – in the formulation of strategic objectives, the third – in overcoming the crisis. Scientists have been withdrawn following the laws that extend the features of the theory:
1. If a man won the leadership in one situation, he has a higher chance to become a leader in the other;
2. A leader in a particular area of activity often appointed as a leader and consolidates his leadership;
3. In order to become a leader in the narrow area, it is important that the person wishes to become a leader – in the future will be easier to expand his influence.
As you can see, the problem of combining the leader and manager in a face is difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, this can be offset by establishing a beneficial contact between the informal leader and manager. And the managers themselves, with due attention to their subordinates can become leaders. The point here is not to miss an important factor in leadership that is often neglected, considering it something abstract and purely theoretical and not giving it special significance.
Several questions for managers that they must ask themselves at the end of the year and try to answer them, in all candor:
1. Did you provide the services with the utmost professionalism and quality?
2. Was your behavior flawless during the cooperation with other people?
- Have you achieved the goals that set out to this year?
4.Did you get rid of the habit of crawling and, if so, to what extent?
5. Did you even slightly improve the features of the character and if you could, how?
6. Have you been quite persistent in implementing your own plan?
7. Have you overcome six signs of fear: poverty, criticism, illness, love disappointment, old age and death?
8. Were you overly cautious or illegible in the choice of means, leading to a goal?
9. Is your relationship with partners or business colleagues straight? If not, is there your fault?
10. Have you been quite tolerant with respect to other people, were you able to free their minds from the prejudices and preconceptions?
11. How could you develop their ability to provide services?
12. How much time I spent on efforts in the wrong direction and to achieve secondary goals, instead of using it more deliberately?
13. How should I calculate the time and change habits in order to achieve great success in the coming year, good luck?
14. Was I guilty of something?
15. How can I extend the range of services and improve their quality?
16. Was I being unfair to anyone else, and if so, why?
17. Why do I choose my profession?
18. Were the buyers of my services satisfied with them, and if not, why not?
19. What is my current rating of success if based on the principles that lead to success?
As we can see, these are interesting questions, the answers to which determine their level of competence, professionalism, and the possibility to objectively evaluate the level of services provided to the buyer, and including, identifying their personal qualities. Truthful answers will help determine their mistakes, find the answers to the questions, suggest ways to better build their careers and interact with other people. Now let’s turn to the world of psychological practice and see what methods of interaction there can be created by manager with clients, if he wants to become a manager that leads, in order to improve his work and learning new methods of mastery: an important first impressions of the client – so the first is to try the first few minutes of communication to exercise the utmost friendliness, location, and interest to the client. If you make a tactless blunder just in the first few minutes, then it will be harder to correct the negative impression about themselves, their goods or services. Pay attention to the various parties to customer requests – both to basic and to the indirect. You may try to identify the reasons for his interest in the services you provide, of any of your products. Then you can look at the problem, as the Rubik’s cube, for example with different and “colored” side. Later client can be asked only discreet questions, better to avoid provocation and crushing issues. Then you may go to mutual concessions, respecting the client, making him discounts, bonuses, etc. When a customer uses the counter and skepticism, it should be tried to “bend” under his demands psychologically, for example, using knowledge of psychology of human relationships. While working with the client you the manager should be positive. Everything: the speech, movement, facial expressions should be filled with optimism, and you yourselves are full of enthusiasm and vigor. You have to literally “infect” the client for their interest in service or product. Indifferent and boring manager will sell harder than optimistic manager. Remember that the client is entitled to a mistake. Turning to the customer, say “you” and “we”, not “I”. Try to remove from the conversation: “I think …” , “I would like to tell you ….” Instead, say: “your experience …” “… your perception,” “our company offers …”, “We would like to offer you ….». To create emotional support is important, in order to configure a person to buy from you. It is possible with gestures of openness and honesty – not with fists clenched, and his clenched hands, but rather, decompressed and outstretched hands, palms out, a smile on his face, open and not look askance, friendly handshake.
There should be offered various options and the manager should not be inflexible. If the client does not want to buy a product, offer him another, vary the goods in various price categories, ask the clients to buy at a discount, or credit, interest him free shipping or gift bonus. A good manager is always in something an actor. And the better actor he is in it – the better he is as a manager. A good manager that leads must be creative, use innovations, his own unique approach, take firm decisions, properly consult and delegate, always make sure that staff knows what they want to achieve and the most important to create a clear direction. Each employee must know where the leader is encouraging them to go, in what direction and what the main goals are. Be the actors in the shower, play, experiment, and the luck certainly will find you soon. Constant interest in innovative approaches and different updates will help a manager to do his best and to be the leader. As once said witty Mark Twain: “Luck is knocking on the door of every man, but it often happens that a man is sitting in a nearby pub and does not hear her knocking.”